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Environmental Impact Assessment

An environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a judgment of the both probable positive or negative impacts expected to be created by a proposed project on the natural environment. The harmful effects can be arise due to the things like changes in land use, the introduction of new buildings or land, water or air emissions. EIA is a system for taking enough account of environmental effects and giving assurance to their effective integration with commercial ambitions. There is existence of legislations which establish investigations, though experience to varied commercial and other benefits in different circumstances.


The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that planning departments to consider the ensuing environmental impacts to whether or not to proceed forward with the project. There is an international level of organization named International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) ensures the safety of environmental impacts by handling the processes of identifying, evaluating, predicting, and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development proposals before any major have been taken. Like financial, marketing, economics, economic and IT feasibilities of any project, now we add the Environmental Impact Assessment before start of project to avoid the possible future costs like polluter pays principles may be applied to prevent, limit, insurance coverage to a project or require strict liability, based on its intensity of environmental harms. These EIAs are sometimes controversial.

Under the background of EIA government is responsible for developing policy and best-practice formulation and evaluation, understanding the legislative framework and requirements of a proposed development, preparation of cost-effective data collection strategies, the effective communication of environmental information to those involved in decision making processes and interpretation of data and development of appropriate and innovative mitigation.

Departments which come under the definition of EIA are agricultural, archaeological and cultural heritage, environmental economics, ecology and nature conservation, environmental water quality, freshwater and marine ecology, landscape and visual impact assessment, noise & dust and air quality studies, rural economy, socio-economics and social impact assessments & traffic and transport studies/impact assessment. Government must ensure the implementation of EIA for the above mentioned departments.  

The EIA Directive is the name of European Union legislation for EIA of the effects of projects on the environment was established in year 1985 and amended in 1997. The procedure for EIA ensures that environmental cost of projects are recognized and assessed before approval is given to the project. Public is also allowed to give its opinions and all results are taken into account in the approval process of the project. In the end public is informed about all decisions. There are certain EIA outlines for Directive which project categories shall be made subject to an EIA, which procedure shall be followed and the content of the assessment.



It is not only the government responsibility but also the public responsibility to work for EIA and cooperate with government in this regard. For the reason there are many commercial and non profit organizations working for the great cause. There are certain organizations which are involved in environmental protection and assurance of EIA in United Kingdom naming Bryant Homes, Defense Estates, Defra, Greater London Authority, Hal crow UK IKEA , National Grid Company, National Wind Power, Northumbrian Water, Rail track, Scottish Power, and South East Water, The Countryside Agency, The Crown Estate and Yorkshire Forward. There are numerous projects which involved the EAI Successfully in UK and Europe including Teesside Offshore Wind Farm, Expansion of Stansted Airport, and construction of BAA Airport, UK Biodiversity Action Plan - Independent Evaluation of Progress etc.




GEPA an agency United Nations has formed with the help of 21 nations including British which manages preserves, protects and improves the environment, for the control of pollution and prevention of environment, and to assess the impacts of economic development activities affecting environment. GEPA is also responsible for national environmental education, co-ordinates of program for coastal zone management, management of wildlife and the system establishment of protected areas. Form the very start, GEPA has created various mechanisms for environmental protection includes:  formation of environmental quality standards, making compulsory for all projects likely to take significant actions to carry out an environmental impact assessment (EIA), regulating and licensing activities with the potential for pollution,  introducing penalties and fines for degradation of environment, monitor environmental impacts which was  initiated from industrial and other activities and organizing programs focused on public awareness and environmental education of the national populace.




To rightly make the environmental impact assessment it is necessary to have technical expertise and infrastructure. Technical Infrastructure for Environmental Management for various projects in UK and Europe involves Pak Agus Purnomo, steady advice and assistance from different international teams has been much appreciated, as has been the online technical assistance from Charles Kelly (REA Consultant). In the forestry prevention judgments of technical analysts is taken, who assess how well a country’s policy and institutional framework fosters poverty reduction, sustainable growth and effective use of aid.

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